There are many different types of surgeries to stabilize knees with torn ACLin dogs and cats. The surgical procedures available can be categorized based on different principles such as ligament replacement versus angle correction (osteotomy) technique. The angle correction surgeries include TPLO (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy), and TTA (tibial tuberosity advancement). These techniques are performed in large breed dogs over … Read More


1. KNOW THE BREED Pure breed dogs are prone to hip dysplasia (German Shepherd, Labrador, golden retriever and pit bull), patella luxation and cruciate ligament tear (toy breed), spinal disc herniation (dachshunds and toy breed).  2. AVOID OBESITY One of the most common factor for orthopedic injuries is obesity. This factor exacerbate  sprain injuries  in normal patients and animals with … Read More


WHAT IS STEM CELL THERAPY? Stem cells therapy is used in human and veterinary medicine for its regenerate and healing potential.  Stem cells are progenitor cells  that have the function to transform into any cell type in the body. They are considered the master of healing, because of the their multiple protective functions.   Stem cells regulate the immune system … Read More


HOW DO I PREPARE MY HOME FOR THE POST OP CARE? For a successful recovery after joint surgery,  post op instructions should be rigorously followed. Getting the environment where the patient is recovering ready and safe is very important. Things to address before the patient arrives home 1. Activity restriction (leash only and always) 2. Block stairs and furnitures (gaits, … Read More


WHY RECOMMENDING PHYSICAL THERAPY POST OP? Many  studies have shown that patients receiving physical therapy  after surgery  reach normal limb function compared to dogs that just rested. Physical therapy post operatively is beneficial because provides  early mobility and comfort,  and encourage early usage of the operated leg. WHAT IS INVOLVED IN PHYSICAL THERAPY Ice therapy Heat therapy Passive and active … Read More


LAMENESS EXAM Lameness  can be attributed to an orthopedic or neurologic pathology. It is important to ALWAYS  perform both exams. To correctly assess a patient with orthopedic disease, the best way is to evaluate him or her when there is not excitement or stress. The first approach to a proper physical examination is to observe the dog from distance. No … Read More


WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF MASSAGE THERAPY? Massage therapy is used for animals and people as a form of physical rehabilitation and it has been shown to be very beneficial. The act of manipulating muscles provides great benefits, which include pain relief, reduction of inflammation, and less scar formation. Commonly, after the tissue is traumatized, the muscle tightens and knots … Read More


DOES ACL TEAR HEAL BY ITSELF? The ACL in dogs can partially or fully tear. There is a chance that partial tears could heal without surgery with restricted exercise. However, if the ligament is fully torn, surgery is the only effective treatment. WHICH KIND OF EXERCISE RESTRICTION IS NEEDED FOR SPONTANEOUS ACL HEALING? To ensure adequate healing of a partially … Read More


WHAT ARE BLADDER AND KIDEY STONES Bladder and kidney stones (calculi) are common in dogs (more) and cats (less) and multiple factors are responsible for their formation. The predisposing factors responsible are decreased water intake, dry food (high in protein, minerals) consumption, genetic factors, abnormal PH of the urine, and bacterial infection. HOW DO I KNOW IF MY PET HAS … Read More


WHAT IS PERINEAL URETHROSTOMY? Perineal urethrostomy or PU is a surgical procedure that entails creating a permanent opening of the urethra (pipe that connects the urinary bladder to the outside) to prevent stones, crystals, mucous plugs to obstruct the urethra. WHY DO CATS DEVELOP URINARY BLOCKAGE? Urinary blockage is a very common condition in adult cats usually overweight / obese … Read More


WHAT IS TRACHEAL COLLAPSE? Tracheal collapse refers to the flattening out of the windpipe and possibly of the bronchi. The trachea is made of multiple rings of cartilage that allow the airways to stay open and the patient to breath. Tracheal collapse is commonly seen in middle to older small breed dogs such as (Yorkshire, Chihuahuas etc.). Multiple factors have … Read More


WHAT IS STRENGTHENING EXERCISE? Strengthening exercises are used postoperatively to speed the recovery and prepare the patient to a near normal daily life by minimizing the potential risk of injuries. WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHENING EXERCISE AVAILABLE? STEP-UP: The step-up exercise is accomplished by using a step, which height varies accordingly to the height of the patient. Similar to the exercise … Read More


WHAT IS PERINEAL HERNIA? Perineal hernia is the movement of abdominal organs to the pelvic cavity, and it is secondary to weakening of the muscles of the pelvis. The hernia is identified as a swelling or bulge on one side or both sides of the anus. WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF PERINEAL HERNIA? The cause of perineal hernia is not … Read More


WHAT IS PAINWHAT ARE PERINEAL OR ANAL FISTULAS? Anal fistulas or also called perianal fistulas are draining tracts around the anal region of dogs that start as small openings and progress to ulcerations (large wound). The condition is similar to inflammatory bowel disease in people (Crohn’s disease) and it is autoimmune. The immune system attacks the lining of the anus … Read More


WHAT IS PAIN? Pain is the chemical response of the body to a stimulus to a tissue. There are different levels of pain threshold for every patient exposed to the same stimulus, therefore pain management protocols should be based on the specific individual. HOW DO I KNOW THAT MY PET IS IN PAIN? It is very difficult to determine if … Read More


WHICH ARE THE MOST COMMON ORAL TUMORS IN DOGS AND CATS? Most of the oral tumors in dogs and cats are malignant, however benign tumor also exist.  The malignant tumors include squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, fibrosarcoma. Regarding benign oral tumors epulis and fibromas are the most common. IS SURGERY INDICATED FOR ORAL TUMORS? The best treatment option for oral tumors … Read More


WHAT IS MEGACOLON? The term megacolon refers to a very distended, flaccid colon due to a pathology associated with its neuro-muscular function.  This condition is most commonly seen in cats due to a suspected neurologic or muscular dysfunction of the colon (idiopathic), however other cause such trauma, tumors, and hernias can impede the colon to empty feces. From the severe … Read More


WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON LIVER TUMORS? The most common malignant liver tumor in dogs is Hepatocellular Carcinoma. This type of tumor originates from the liver cells and can grow very large, however the metastatic rate (spread) is low. Some of dog liver tumors are the results of a spread of tumors originating from other region of the body than … Read More


What is Cold Laser Therapy? “Cold Laser”  is a treatment modality that relies on a beam of polarized light that penetrates the skin of the patient and acts specifically on injured cells. The energy transmitted to the traumatized cells triggers beneficial responses. The reason why is called cold laser is because it does not heat the skin. How will my dog  benefit … Read More


WHAT IS LARYNGEAL PARALYSIS? Laryngeal paralysis is a respiratory condition, in which the patient’s vocal box can be partially or completely obstructed by the collapse of its cartilages. The condition is believed to be secondary to a polyneuropathy (nerve disease) involving the nerve that controls the muscle responsible to open the cartilage of the vocal box during breathing. HOW DO … Read More


Tumors of the spleen can be categorized as benign (nodular hyperplasia / hematoma) versus malignant (hemangio-sarcoma).  Benign tumors account for 40 to 50 %, and malignant for 60 to 50 % of all splenic lesions.  WHAT IS THE BREED AFFECTED BY SPLENIC TUMORS ? The most common malignant splenic tumor is Hemangio-sarcoma, and it is over-represented in Golden Retrievers, Labradors, … Read More

Femoral head osteotomy

What is Femoral head osteotomy? FHO is a surgical procedure that entails removing the  ball and neck of the femur  at the level of the hip joint and relies on scar tissue development. The FHO  is a salvage procedure that is most commonly performed because it is less expensive (no hardware) and has less serious complications compared to total hip … Read More


What is arthritis? Arthtits is joint inflammation that is the result of cartilage damage. The loss of cartilage will  increase the bone on bone contact at the level of the joint that will lead to formation of bone spurs. These changes will result in loss of range of motion, stiffness, and discomfort. What are the risk factors for arthritis? Well … Read More


What is an amputation? Amputation referes to the removal of part (partial) or entire (full) leg. Partial amputation is performed when part of the limb is left attached to the rest of the body as a stump and prosthetic devices (artificial leg) can be attached to.  The full amputation is performed by removing the entire leg with the scapula (shoulder … Read More

Animal Ligament Replacement Surgery

My vet said: my dog has a torn ACL, what is it? The cruciate ligament, also called in human (ACL) is one of the most common ligament  injury in dogs. Its main function is to prevent the knee to move abnormally. Knees with torn ACLs are unstable and consequently the friction that develops causes pain, inflammation, and eventually bone spurs … Read More


WHY COULD FOREIGN BODIES BE FATAL? Due to the habits of eating a variety of foreign bodies, dogs and cats could develop serious complications that could lead to life-threatening conditions. The most concerning foreign bodies are linear (string, carpet, rugs), sharp (glass, skewer, etc) and metallic types. The complications associated with these materials are perforations of the intestinal lining, which … Read More


WHAT IS CLEFT PALATE? Cleft palate refers to a permanent opening between the nose and the mouth due to a birth defect. It can be categorized as primary cleft (involving the lip- nose), and secondary cleft (involving the roof of the mouth). This condition is genetic and the breeds most commonly affected are brachycephalic (Boston, Pekingese, Bulldogs etc.), and it … Read More


WHAT IS CHYLOTHORAX OR CHYLOUS EFFUSION? Chylothorax is the accumulation of fatty fluid (chyle) into the chest cavity of animals, that prevents the lungs to expand normally and oxygenate properly. WHERE IS THE CHYLE (MILKY FLUID) ORIGINATING? The milky fluid (chyle) originates from the digestions of fatty meals in the intestine, then via the lymphatic vessels, this fluid is emptied … Read More


Brachycephalic syndrome is a condition seen in short muzzle pets (Bull dogs, Pug, Pekinese, Persian cats) that present to the veterinarians for increased upper respiratory noises (noisy breathing), and respiratory difficulties. The condition is a syndrome because involves a combination of problems, which include a long palate, a malformed nose (stenotic nares), vocal box collapse (laryngeal collapse), small wind pipe … Read More


WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON BONE TUMORS IN SMALL ANIMALS The most common bone tumor in dogs is osteosarcoma, being a very aggressive tumor with 100% metastatic rate. Unlike the canine population, osteosarcoma in cat can be curative due to its less aggressive behavior. Less common bone tumors are hemangi-osarcoma, fibro-sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. ARE THERE PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR BONE TUMOR … Read More


Dr. Tomas Infernuso, DVM, DACVS WHAT IS STOMACH BLOAT – TORSION? Stomach bloat-torsion also called Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV) in medical terminology, refers to a life-threatening condition, in which the stomach distends and rotates (twist) along its axis and cuts off the circulation of major organs. WHAT ARE THE PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR STOMACH BLOAT-TORSION? Stomach bloat-torsion is seen in giant deep … Read More


Dr. Tomas Infernuso, DVM, DACVS WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE GALLBLADDER? The gall bladder’s primary function is to store bile (breakdown of red blood cells from liver), which eventually flows into the intestine and helps with the digestion of fat. There are conditions such stones (gallstones), masses (tumor), or thickened bile (mucocele) that can obstruct the bile flow and … Read More


WHAT IS AURAL OR EAR HEMATOMA?  Ear hematoma is the presence of blood within the tissues of the flap of the ear also called pinna. The flappy ear becomes swollen, warm and painful. The condition is usually caused by the patient that selft-raumatizing the ear due to infections and or capillary fragility. HOW DO YOU TREAT EAR HEMATOMA? The treatment … Read More

Atlantoaxial instability / AA Luxation

What is AA luxation? AA luxation is also called atlanto-axial malalignment and it is commonly a congenital abnormality (birth defect), however traumatic causes can also be seen. The malalignment is between the cervical vertebra 1 and vertebra 2 and causes spinal cord impingement. Which breeds are commonly affected? Small breeds toy dogs are most commonly affected, with Toy Poodles, Pekinese, … Read More


WHAT ARE THE ANAL SACS? The anal sacs are small opening on each side of the anus, that release a smelly fluids, used by animals for sexual recognition. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON ANAL SAC TUMORS? The most common anal sac tumors are adenocarcinoma, and are very aggressive due to its invasiveness and spread. These particular tumors are 100% metastatic … Read More

What is an amputation?

Amputation referes to the removal of part (partial) or entire (full) leg. Partial amputation is performed when part of the limb is left attached to the rest of the body as a stump and prosthetic devices (artificial leg) can be attached to. The full amputation is performed by removing the entire leg with the scapula (shoulder blade) for the front … Read More

Achilles’ tendon injury and how to fix it

What is the cause of Achilles’ tendon tear? The Achilles’ tendon also called common calcaneal tendon can be injured from traumatic or degenerative changes of the tendon itself. The most common cause of tendon tear is traumatic, which includes (lacerations, pulling, and stretching), and less likely degenerative in nature, seen in Dobermans and Retrievers. What are the signs of Achilles’s … Read More